Hawaii, the Aloha state, is comprised primarily of eight islands in the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii’s landscape is unique in that it exhibits towering volcanoes, lush valleys, and sandy beaches. It is the only state that has its own official native language. Hawaii covers 6,423 square miles, with a 2014 estimated population of 1,419,561 people – 264,665 living in rural Hawaii (USDA-ERS). Honolulu, the capital, is located on the island of Oahu. The state’s largest cities are Honolulu, Hilo, Kailua, Kaneohe and Waipahu. Hawaii is the most racially and ethnically diverse state in the nation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 26.6% of the state’s population is white, 37.7% is Asian, 10.0% is Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 2.3% is African American/Black, and 9.8% is of Hispanic/Latino origin (2013).

Hawaii Rural Healthcare Facilities

Hawaii Rural Healthcare Facilities map

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There are 25 hospitals in Hawaii (Kaiser, 2013), 13 of which are located in rural areas (North Carolina Rural Health Research and Policy Analysis Center, Dec. 2008). The state has 9 hospitals identified as Critical Access Hospitals (Flex Team, 4/2015). There are 2 Rural Health Clinics in Hawaii (CMS, 2015), and 14 Federally Qualified Health Centers provide services at 75 sites in the state (NACHC, 2013).

Selected Social Determinants of Health for Rural Hawaii

Most Hawaiians have some form of health insurance coverage, although 5.0% of its residents lack health insurance (Kaiser, 2013). According to the Economic Research Service, The average per-capita income in 2013 for residents of Hawaii was $45,204 although rural per-capita income lagged at $35,620. Estimates from 2013 indicate a poverty rate of 17.4% exists in rural Hawaii, compared to a 9.8% level in urban areas of the state. The ERS reports, based on 2009-2013 ACS data, that 9.3% of the rural population has not completed high school, compared to 9.7% of urban populations. The unemployment rate in rural Hawaii is 5.4%, while in urban Hawaii it is 4.1% (USDA-ERS, 2014).

For a national comparison, please see an overview of the United States.

Data Sources
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: Rural Health Clinic List; Flex Monitoring Team: Critical Access Hospital List; Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts; National Association of Community Health Centers: Key Health Center Data By State; U.S. Census Bureau: State & County QuickFacts; USDA Economic Research Service: State Fact Sheets


Hawaii State Office of Primary Care and Rural Health
Phone: 808.586.4122
A division of the Hawaii Department of Health. Works closely with the statewide Hawaii Rural Health Association.
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There are more organizations related to Hawaii in the organizations section.